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Opal Mining

Opal mining at Lightning ridge.

Before the opal miners start digging they apply for lease and do prospecting with drilling rig.

This drilling rig will go down to bedrock and take samples that are analysed for any opals.

If opal is found they rid will drill one meter hole down on average 30 meters

this the opal miner will work with jack hammer or earth moving equipment

Strong blowers will lift the dirt to the top and place in truck.

In past hoist systems would be operated to lift dirt to the surface

The trucks would take dirt to agitator set up on pond and the dirt would be washed to expose opals .

There is only few open cut mines at Lightning ridge as expensive bonds and running costs are required to operate open cut opal mine.

 

                    Lightning Ridge Landscape                                      Drilling Rig in action                                 Opal Miners Camp

 

 

                                                                      Opal dirt dumped into truck- Trucks dumping at pond site

 

                                 Note trucks on wall of pond- new Agitator -old dry agitator no water needed to operate this machinery

 

Australian opal fields have a long and colourful history. Here you can find fascinating insights into our most well known fields.

The area marked in white below indicates where the ancient Artisian inland sea once lay. within this area Australia's most famous opal fields operate. All types of precious opal are found in this vast area.
The area mark

ed in dark grey indicates where the state of Queensland's opal fields are found, home to the boulder opal.

 


Australia Opal Fields
Find information state by state on Australia's most famous opal fields.
STATE
WELL KNOWN FIELDS
South Australia
Mintabie, Coober Pedy, Andamooka
New South Wales
Lightning Ridge (black opal), White Cliffs
Queensland
Koroit, Yowah, Jundah

Opal Mining in Australia is over vast area from sate Queensland that has Boulder opal to NSW that has black opal at lightning ridge to the south Australian opal fields.

Australian opal fields are so unique in the world

Opals from Queensland are mined on ironstone backing and black opals have unique black potch and Coober Pedy has many crystals formed as seam opals or fossil

each area is so unique opal miners can easily distinguish between what area the opal came from but experienced opals miners can even tell at what level or what area from an opal field that the opal came from

The Mining of Opal

Opal is well-known as a valuable gemstone which is generated from non-crystalline silica gel. It composed of 2 to 5% of water and tiny silica spheres which are arranged in a standard pattern. It usually measured 5.5 up to 6.5 and based on MOH’s solidity’s scale with diamonds determining 9 to 10 pieces of pearls. It is a birthstone for October.

During 1849, Opal was dated back and was found at a cattle station known as Tarrawilla, in Angaston. Nearly, 95% of the Opal is discovered in Australia. However, a small number of it is usually found in areas like USA, Brazil and Mexico and new opal fields in Ethiopia look promising. There are three main Opal mining districts in Australia that generate diverse types of Opal.

Most of the Opal deposits are found in New South Wales and South Australia and queensland. In fact, mining of opal is often performed in the following regions, and every Opal is produced with detailed features and color patterns. Lightning Ridge is considered as the famous and magnificent black opal.

Black opal was first exposed at Lighting Ridge in the late 1880. White Cliffs is Australia’s aged commercial opal field. This is located around 295 kilometers northeast of Broken Hill. Opal was first extracted at White Cliffs since 1889. For almost 30 years, White Cliff opal fields generated Opal from the world’s market.

Coober Pedy is well-known for Milky Opals. At present, opal fields include an area of roughly 45 kilometers. Andamooka is discovered in the southwestern part of Coober Pedy in most desert country. Andamooka is one of Australia’s most prominent Opal fields, having generated some of the most striking pieces of Opal.

Most of these opal fields within the Andamooka area generate crystal, dark, gem, and light Opal. Opal regularly occurs in both sedimentary rocks and volcanic form. In fact, there is a variety of methods in mining an Opal. Generally, there is a far-reaching documentation that shows a collection for an Australian Opal.

Methods of opal miniing

Drop a shaft:

This is the simplest way of mining Opal through the use of shovel and pick. A shaft is submerged directly until some “Opal dirt” is exposed. The span of the shaft could be as too small as three meters or as extensive as 20 meters. A screwdriver or handpick is used to take out with any Opal found because of the weakness of the stone.

However due to government regulations it is getting harder and more expensive for this type mining operation

Open cut mining:

This procedure is done by the use of large equipment ,bulldozers ,excavators,to eliminate huge amount of dirt around the Opal nearer to the face for inspection. This technique is more exclusive and is typically used to explore Boulder Opal in Central Queensland.

Noodling:

Some have taken to huge scale machine noodling by permitting huge quantities of dirt around the Opal on a conveyer belt beneath ultra-violet light, which determines the valuable Opal.

Puddling and Rumbling:

A puddler is a hefty mesh-lined drum fixed into a motor. These machines spin and twist the clay into the mire as water is forced into the drum. This mire runs through the mesh. An associated technique is known as dry rumbling.

hayricks mine 1929 Yowah, Queensland
The infamous Hayricks Mine with founder Joe Knehr, 1929
Yowah Opal Fields, mined since 1884
Opal Ratter
This dummy with the sign reading "ratter" underneath is an indication of what miners think of people stealing opal from their mines
Opal Mining Camp
Very old photo of typical miners and camp in the early 1900s (White Cliffs field)

Australian Opal Mining Industry

Currently, Australia produces approximately 95 per cent of the world’s opal from sedimentary rocks in central Australia. Other countries which produce minor amounts of opal include Honduras, Mexico, former Czechoslovakia and Brazil. With the exception of Brazilian opal, which is sediment-hosted, opal in these countries occurs in volcanic rocks. Sedimentary opal is superior in quality to volcanic opal.

All of Australia’s significant opal deposits are situated within or adjacent to the margins of the Great Australian Basin. The characteristics of opal deposits vary from field to field. The highest value stones are black opals from Lightning Ridge. Gem quality opals vary enormously in price. Unprocessed top quality black opal is currently worth up to $10,000 per carat. Lesser quality opal varies considerably in price depending on the type of opal, its colour, impurities and defects.

The value of the industry to the Australian economy is unknown owing to its fragmented nature and inadequate official records. Production figures of between $100 Million and $200 Million per annum for uncut gems are generally quoted. Estimates from the various State governments support the more conservative figure.

Historically, opal mining has been the preserve of the small-scale miner, although each of the opal States (South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland) has either enacted legislation or begun promotion to encourage the larger-scale explorer and miner. Despite the vast expanse of potential opal-bearing rocks in central Australia, only one new opal centre (Lambina in South Australia) and few new significant discoveries away from existing centres have been made in the last 70 years.

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